Nevertheless, the theorem came to be credited to pythagoras. But in reality, this was written much earlier in ancient india by sage. In any rightangled triangle, the area of the square whose side is the hypotenuse the side opposite. The sutras of the ancient teaching mickushina, tatyana n. Muhammad bin musa alkhwarizmi who wrote the book titled kitab aljabr walmuqabala meaning the compendious book on calculation by completion and balancing, which provided symbolic operations for the. A few examples display clearly some salient features of the habits of exposition and the methods of thought of ancient and medieval indian mathematicians. Later vedic periodbc500bc this phase of the vedic period is also known as the sulba sutra period as the first significant chapter of sulba sutra was written by baudhyayana around 800bc. Ancient indian mathematics is scattered in various vedic sanskrit texts. Vedic mathematics or hindu mathematics refers to the mathematics that emerged in the indian subcontinent. He is noted as the author of the earliest sulba sutraappendices to the vedas giving rules for the construction of altarscalled the baudhayana sulbasutra, which contained several important mathematical results. Pascals triangle is explained in chandas shastra, an ancient indian book on sanskrit prosody written by pingala between the 5th and 2nd century bce.
In mathematics, the pythagorean pythagoras theorem written around 400 bc is a. The basis and inspiration for the whole of indian mathematics is geometry. In pythagorean theorem is mentioned in the baudhayana sulbasutra of india, which was written between 800 and 400 bce. The decimal number system in use today was first recorded. Avadesh narayan 1962, history of hindu mathematics. The baudhayana sutras are a group of vedic sanskrit texts which cover dharma, daily ritual, mathematics. The contribution to mathematics by india can be divided into ten categories 1.
He belongs to the yajurveda school, and is older than the other sutra author apastambha. Another meaning suggested for the word sutra is threads. Sutras were originally oral traditions and designed to prompt the memory, which was probably the best alternative in a context. Pythagorean theorem visual demonstration of the pythagorean theorem. It was ancient indians mathematicians who discovered pythagoras theorem.
Baudhayana sulba sutra project gutenberg selfpublishing. The decimal number system in use today was first recorded in indian mathematics. As per the acceptance by most people in the world the father of algebra is. The shulba sutras or sulbasutras are sutra texts belonging to the srauta ritual and containing geometry related to firealtar construction. The shape of the fire altars used for various religious practices involves certain geometrical shapes like circles, triangles, rectangles, rhomboids etc. Somehow many writers jump to the relatively late sulba sutras while discussing ancient indian mathematics. Sulbasutra geometry university of british columbia. Sulba sutra of vedic india and pythagorean principle of. A brief history of ancient indian mathematics by rajen barua. The sulba sutras enumerates the rules for the construction of vedic fire altars. Baudhayana sulba sutra dateable to between 800 bce to 500 bce, the oldest among the sulba sutras, gives the pythagorean theorem, in the context of a. The scientific knowledge base presented by our rishis and perceptive thinkers covers a wide canvas of subjects such as physics, chemistry, mathematics, astronomy, metallurgy, biotechnology and environment science etc. The creation of a book like lilavaty was possible in india because of its long tradition of culture with mathematics. Indian mathematics emerged in the indian subcontinent from 1200 bce until the end of the 18th century, after which indian mathematicians were directly part of the development of global mathematics.
Some reasons why a particular publication might be regarded as important. Recollection of death also serves as a useful preparation for the time when one actually has to face death. Now,people are blinded by falsehood of newton as father of calculus. Extensive research on the applicability of these methods is being carried out in several countries. For example, the decimal system was perhaps the most revolutionary mathematical achievement in the ancient world. The sulbasutras have been dated from around 800200 bc, and further to the expansion of topics in the vedangas, contain a number of significant developments. Infact he stole it from indian,who practiced calculus in a school of astronomy in malabar,kerla 2000 years before jesus. I am grateful to ken hince for assistance with the diagrams and to tom egenes for helping me avoid some of the pitfalls of sanskrit transliteration and translation. From becoming more mindful or viewing a situation through a new lens, the ancient wisdom of the sutras will give you new perspective for your modern life. The system of measurement of the various sacrificial places was being carried out by means of sulba or a measuring cord and. The beginnings of algebra can be traced to the constructional geometry of the vedic priests preserved in the sulbasutras, a manual of geometrical constructions from the 5 th to the 8 th centuries. But in reality, this was written much earlier in ancient india by sage baudhayana around 2000 bce. Greek ancient civilizations, it is in india that we see a strong.
This is a list of important publications in mathematics, organized by field. Mar 29, 2015 pythagorean pythagoras theorem in baudhayana sulba sutra 800 bc in mathematics, the pythagorean pythagoras theorem written around 400 bc is a relation among the three sides of a right triangle rightangled triangle. Hence, the sulbasutras stand for mathematics that grew out of the use of. Indian mathematician apastamba, in his apastamba sulba sutra, solves the general linear equation and uses simultaneous diophantine equations with up to five unknowns. Euclids geometry is considered to be the best geometry book in the ancient world.
A brief history of ancient indian mathematics part ii. Vedic science and ancient vedic weights and measures. So many people have been proclaimed as father of mathematics as well as father of algebra. Historians of mathematics have also studied and written about other. It is possible, as proposed by gupta, that the geometry was developed to meet the needs of ritual. Of the sulvas so far uncovered the four major and most mathematically significant are those composed by baudhayana, manava, apastamba and katyayana perhaps least important of the sutras, by the time it was composed the vedic religion was becoming less predominant. Ancient indian mathematics emerged in the indian subcontinentfrom 1200 bce until the end of the 18th century. I learnt the sulba sutra as a child, before learning from western books in mathematics. In fact, the debate on the dating of ancient indian knowledge and.
The remains of this site are on the kachi plain near the bolan pass in baluchistan, pakistan. This might come as a surprise to many, but its true that pythagoras theorem was known much before pythagoras and it was indians who actually discovered it at least year. Indian sulbasutras mactutor history of mathematics university of. Then follow the brahmanas books and the sulba sutra books in chronological order. The arithmetic back ground of geometry of sulba sutras 19 4. Sep, 20 these new texts were written in sanskrit instead of pali. Indian mathematics emerged in the indian subcontinent from 1200 bc until the end of the 18th century.
The sulba sutras enumerates the rules for the construction of vedic fire altars designed by vedic priestly class of brahma bhatt. Topic creator a publication that created a new topic. This series of treatises is known as the surya siddhanta and it is the oldest book of astronomy known to exist. In the classical period of indian mathematics 400 ce to 1600 ce, important contributions were made by scholars like aryabhata, brahmagupta, mahavira, bhaskara ii, madhava of sangamagrama and. It is likely that the sulbasutra sections were a part of the srautasutras of the yajur veda, the veda designed for the performance of sacrifices. In mathematics, the pythagorean pythagoras theorem written around 400 bc is a relation among the three sides of a right triangle rightangled triangle. Sulba sutra of vedic india and pythagorean principle of mathematics. Are these included in the wellknown 20th century book titled vedic mathematics. They used ideas like the sine, cosine and tangent functions which relate the angles of a triangle to the relative lengths of its sides to survey the land around them, navigate the seas and even chart the heavens. In this article ny times bestseller and spiritual teacher deborah king explains how to use the wisdom of ancient indian sutras to achieve higher consciousness. Mathematics during the vedic age the new indian express. In the box on the left, the greenshaded a 2 and b 2 represent the squares on the sides of any one of the identical right triangles.
Among this early mahayana literature creations are the many sutras belonging to the perfection of wisdom prajnaparamita, c. The word sutra is a sanskrit term that means discourse in the pali language. In the classical period of indian mathematics 400 ad to 1200 ad, important contributions were made by scholars like aryabhata, brahmagupta, bhaskara ii, and varahamihira. Unique firealtar shapes were associated with unique gifts from the gods. In book ii of his elements, euclid gives a geometric construction with euclidean tools for the solution of the quadratic equation for positive real roots.
The book vedic mathematics talks about an ancient system of calculations that is derived from the vedas. It was known in the sulbasutra for example, sutra 52 of baudhayanas sulbasutram that the diagonal of a square is the side of another square with two times the area of the first square as we can see in figure 1. The sulba sutras generally occur as one or more chapters of the kalp a or srauta sutras or are separate. If the sulba sutras were not written during the harappan period however, it is still possible that harappan mathematics was at least as advanced as the sulba sutras, based on the evidence of superior brick technology in the harappan period. Vedic mathematics is the name given to the ancient system of mathematics, or, to be precise, a unique technique of calculations based on simple rules and principles, with which any mathematical problem be it arithmetic, algebra, geometry or trigonometry can be solved. The sulba sutras have been dated from around 800200 bc, and further to the expansion of topics in the vedangas, contain a number of significant developments. Ancient indian sutra wisdom for modern times deborah king.
Pythagorean pythagoras theorem in baudhayana sulba sutra. It was rediscovered in the early part of the twentieth century by sri bharati krishna tirthaji, who spent a lifetime studying the various vedic sutras and traditions. The aim of this book is to make these ancient methods accessible to mathematics lovers all over the world and it will help to make mathematics easy to understand and fun. This theorem is also mentioned in the baudhayana sulba sutra of india, written between 800 and 400 b. Whats new pythagorean pythagoras theorem in baudhayana sulba sutra 2000 bce in mathematics, the pythagorean pythagoras theorem written around 400 bc is a relation among the three sides of a right triangle rightangled triangle. Jun 28, 2016 the vajracchedika prajnaparamita sutra has been translated from sanskrit into english variously as the diamond sutra, the diamond cutter sutra, the vajra sutra and the the diamond sutra.
Pdf sulba sutra of vedic india and pythagorean principle. Pythagorean pythagoras theorem in baudhayana sulba sutra 800 bc in mathematics, the pythagorean pythagoras theorem written around 400 bc is a relation among the three sides of a right triangle rightangled triangle. People initially were present in northwest part of ancient india but slowly moved towards eastern india and also towards south deccan. In the classical period of indian mathematics 400 ce to 1600 ce, important contributions were made by scholars like aryabhata, brahmagupta, mahavira, bhaskara ii, madhava of sangamagrama and nilakantha somayaji. Foreword it is now being increasingly recognized that ancient sanskrit literature contains profound wisdom of physical and social sciences. The later sulbasutras represent the traditional material along with further related elaboration of vedic mathematics. The sulbasutras contain the geometry necessary for construction of the vedi and the agni for the obligatory and votive rites. Pythagorean pythagoras theorem in baudhayana sulba sutra 2000 bce in mathematics, the pythagorean pythagoras theorem written around 400 bc is a relation among the three sides of a right triangle rightangled triangle. We have to do this scientifically, good translations, bring these alive in schools in correct.
Golden age indian mathematicians made fundamental advances in the theory of trigonometry, a method of linking geometry and numbers first developed by the greeks. Singh, avadesh narayan 1962, history of hindu mathematics. Ancient indians made achievements in the fields of astronomy, medicine, metallurgy and architecture which were nothing short of remarkable but it was in one field where they stood out mathematics. Mathematics in veda samhitas as mentioned earlier, the books are the four or five veda samhitas. During the next centuries, more sutras were written, the most notable of them being the. They are the only sources of knowledge of indian mathematics from the vedic period. In any rightangled triangle, the area of the square. The later sulba sutras represent the traditional material along with further related elaboration of vedic mathematics. Units of length measures according to sulba sutras 30 5. Olivelle states that book one and the first sixteen chapters of book two are the. There are many important ideas of geometry that are recorded in these ancient texts. As the concluding exercise among the body contemplations, a regular recollection of death can lead to the realization that death is fearful only to the extent to which one identifies with the body. Baudhayana pythagoras theorem it was ancient indians been provided by both baudhayana and apastamba in the sulba sutras it was known in the sulbasutra for example, sutra 52 of baudhayanas sulbasutram that the diagonal of a square is the side of another square with two times.
May 12, 2019 it was ancient indians mathematicians who discovered pythagoras theorem. Sulbha sutras mathlearners vedic period mathematics. At home we had a great library of classical sanskrit texts. Indian mathematics emerged in the indian subcontinent 1 from 1200 bce 2 until the end of the 18th century. The shulba sutras are part of the larger corpus of texts called the shrauta sutras, considered to be appendices to the vedas. It is also proposition number 47 from book i of euclids elements. Indian mathematics project gutenberg selfpublishing. The originality of indias mathematical texts is a consequence of the refined culture of the scholars who produced them. The chinese too had some inkling of the theorem in ancient. Mathematics in ancient india indian academy of sciences.
The bakhshali manuscript is an ancient indian mathematical manuscript written on birch bark which was found near the village of bakhshali in 1881 in what was then the northwest frontier province of british india now khyber pakhtunkhwa province, now in pakistan. These in turn are a part of the kalpasutras, which are attached to the vedas as one of the six v dangas or limbs of the vedas. The ancient hindu books directly dealing with mathematics are the so called sulba sutras dated little later than the books mentioned above. References are made to the following book while preparing this article. The origin of the mathematics in the shulba sutras is not known. Sutra is a type of religious literature present in many asian traditions such as hinduism, jainism and buddhism. He is noted as the author of the earliest sulba sutra appendices to the vedas giving rules for the construction of altarscalled the baudhayana sulbasutra, which contained several important mathematical results. Jul, 2015 ancient indian mathematics emerged in the indian subcontinentfrom 1200 bce until the end of the 18th century.
Thus, if we consider the side of the original square to be one unit. Breakthrough a publication that changed scientific knowledge significantly. Historians of mathematics have also studied and written about other sulbasutras of lesser importance such as the manava sulbasutra written about 750 bc and the katyayana sulbasutra written about 200 bc. Indian sulbasutras mactutor history of mathematics. List of important publications in mathematics wikipedia. Baudhayana listed pythagoras theorem in his book called baudhayana sulbasutra 800 bce. Sulba sutra by some is dated to 10th century bc or perhaps older. The sulba sutras enumerates the rules for the construction of vedic fire altars designed by vedic priestly class of. Each sulba sutra is ascribed to a mathematician and the sulba sutra of baudhayana that predates pythagoras by a. The vedas has been rewritten by english for a long period. Proof of pythagoras theorem has been provided by both baudhayana and apastamba in their sulba sutras.614 1100 735 395 656 133 69 726 1182 1102 1037 347 1496 414 131 368 1080 1126 479 1263 405 639 851 1216 1417 421 149 1023 310 1262 316 1115 44 1351 490 89 551 572 324 1133 981 48 793 362 11 836 1227